[53] Udai Singh's son and successor, Pratap Singh, was later defeated by the Mughals at the Battle of Haldighati in 1576. [158] Even as he was in the Punjab, 200 miles away from the Ganges, the water was sealed in large jars and transported to him. [21] Out of affection to the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter Ruqaiya to his son Akbar. Furthermore, it strived to foster a climate conductive to commerce by requiring local administrators to provide restitution to traders for goods stolen while in their territory. [131] Further, his childhood tutors, who included two Irani Shias, were largely above sectarian prejudices, and made a significant contribution to Akbar's later inclination towards religious tolerance. [44] Furthermore, Akbar, at this early period, was still enthusiastically devoted to the cause of Islam and sought to impress the superiority of his faith over the most prestigious warriors in Brahminical Hinduism. He was born in Umarkot (now Pakistan). Recent Examples on the Web Once the shah was admitted for medical treatment, however, Carter’s fears were realized. Ain-e-Akbari mentions that during his travels and also while at home, Akbar drank water from the Ganges river, which he called 'the water of immortality'. They too were slain and driven out of the empire. In 1558, Akbar took possession of Ajmer, the aperture to Rajputana, after the defeat and flight of its Muslim ruler. [161] Jain authors also wrote about their experience at the Mughal court in Sanskrit texts that are still largely unknown to Mughal historians. In 1575, he built a hall called the Ibadat Khana ("House of Worship") at Fatehpur Sikri, to which he invited theologians, mystics and selected courtiers renowned for their intellectual achievements and discussed matters of spirituality with them. [198] In 1593, he married the daughter of Qazi Isa, and the cousin of Najib Khan. The Mughal emperor known in English as Akbar the Great (Jalal ud-Din Akbar; 1542–1605) extended his rule from a base in Panjab to cover most of the Indian subcontinent by the time of his death. [35] Sikandar Shah Suri, however, presented no major concern for Akbar,[36] and avoided giving battle as the Mughal army approached. The language that Babur and Humayan employed to describe the Mughal domestic world is the subject of her fifth chapter. Upon hearing the news of his brother's death, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief. Jani Beg mustered a large army to meet the Mughals. Ranthambore was held by the Hada Rajputs and reputed to be the most powerful fortress in India. [167] According to Jahangir, Akbar was "of the hue of wheat; his eyes and eyebrows were black and his complexion rather dark than fair". He removed the Jazia tax from Jain pilgrim places like Palitana. Akbar period architecture, building style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605). His nose is straight and small though not insignificant. Finally, he submitted and Akbar restored him to his previous position.[46]. [35] Akbar had firmly declared his intentions that the Mughals were in India to stay. [175], Akbar's first wife and chief consort was his cousin, Princess Ruqaiya Sultan Begum,[25][4] the only daughter of his paternal uncle, Prince Hindal Mirza,[176] and his wife Sultanam Begum. [128] From the 15th century, a number of rulers in various parts of the country adopted a more liberal policy of religious tolerance, attempting to foster communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims. [23] Akbar's marriage with Ruqaiya was solemnized near Jalandhar, Punjab, when both of them were 14-years-old. Akbar now sought to eliminate the threat of over-mighty subjects. [106][page needed] In October 1576 Akbar sent a delegation including members of his family, including his aunt Gulbadan Begum and his consort Salima, on Hajj by two ships from Surat including an Ottoman vessel, which reached the port of Jeddah in 1577 and then proceeded towards Mecca and Medina. Babur, a descendant of two of history’s most famous figures – Timur and Genghis Khan, was the first Mughal ruler to acquire territory in India, his grandson, Akbar is considered to be the one to truly establish Mughal rule. [104][105], In 1576 Akbar sent a very large contingent of pilgrims led by Khwaja Sultan Naqshbandi, Yahya Saleh, with 600,000 gold and silver coins and 12,000 Kaftans of honour and large consignments of rice. [172], During Akbar's reign, the ongoing process of inter-religious discourse and syncretism resulted in a series of religious attributions to him in terms of positions of assimilation, doubt or uncertainty, which he either assisted himself or left unchallenged. Collins English Dictionary. [179], His third wife was his cousin, Salima Sultan Begum,[178] the daughter of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Mirza and his wife Gulrukh Begum also known as Gulrang, the daughter of Emperor Babur. He is considered the greatest of the Moghul emperors in terms of his military conquests. [118] The Hindukush region was militarily very significant owing to its geography, and this was well-recognised by strategists of the times. Dates, Traditions, and History. [22] Humayun conferred on the imperial couple, all the wealth, army, and adherents of Hindal and Ghazni which one of Hindal's jagir was given to his nephew, Akbar, who was appointed as its viceroy and was also given the command of his uncle's army. After yet another dispute at court, Akbar finally dismissed Bairam Khan in the spring of 1560 and ordered him to leave on Hajj to Mecca. Further Reading Makhan Lal Roy Choudhury. However, the city was soon abandoned and the capital was moved to Lahore in 1585. Land which was fallow or uncultivated was charged at concessional rates.